Harmony is the source of manifestation, the cause of its existence, and the
medium between God and man.
The peace for which every soul strives, and which is the true nature of God
and the utmost goal of man, is but the outcome of harmony. This shows that
all life's attainments without a sense of harmony are but vain. It is the
attainment of harmony which is called heaven, and it is the lack of it which
is termed hell. The master of harmony alone understands life, and he who lacks
it is foolish in spite of all other knowledge that he may have acquired.
The Sufi gives great importance to the attainment of harmony, believing that
light is for angels and darkness for the devil, but that harmony is necessary
for the human being in order to keep a balance in life.
There are three aspects of harmony: eternal, universal and individual.
Eternal harmony is the harmony of consciousness. As it is in itself eternal,
all things and beings live and move in it; yet it remains remote, undisturbed
and peaceful. This is the God of the believer and the God of the knower. All
vibrations, from the finest to the grossest, as well as each atom of manifestation,
are held together by this harmony. Both creation and destruction take place
in order to uphold it. Its power ultimately attracts each being towards the
Man is drawn in two opposite directions by the power of harmony: towards
the Infinite and towards manifestation. He is less conscious of the former
than of the latter, and by facing towards one direction he loses sight of
the other. The Infinite being, the essential spirit of all, finally attracts
all to itself. The Sufi gives the greatest importance to harmony with the
Infinite, which he realizes through resignation to the will of God, the Beloved.
The existence of land and water, the land for the water and the water for
the land, the attraction between the heavens and the earth - all demonstrate
a universal harmony. The attraction of the sun and moon to each other, the
cosmic order of the stars and the planets, all connected and related with
each other, moving and working under a certain law; the regular rotation of
the seasons; the night following the day, and the day in its turn giving place
to the night; the dependence of one being on another; the distinctiveness,
attraction and assimilation of the five elements - all prove the universal
The male and female, beast and bird, vegetable and rock - all classes of
things and beings - are linked together and attracted to each other with a
chord of harmony. If one being or thing, however apparently useless, were
missing in this universe of endless variety, it would be as it were a note
missing in a song. As Sa'adi says: 'Every being is born for a certain purpose,
and the light of that purpose is kindled within his soul'. All famines, plagues
and disasters such as storms, floods, volcanic eruptions, wars and revolutions,
however bad they appear to man, are in reality for the adjustment of this
There is a story told in India how once all the inhabitants of a village
which had suffered from drought gathered together before the temple of their
God, praying that for this year an abundance of rain might fall. A voice from
the unseen replied: 'Whatever We do is for the betterment of Our purpose.
Ye have no right to interfere with Our work, Oh ye men!' But they again cried
for mercy, and continued to do so more persistently. Then came the answer
saying: 'Your prayers, fastings and sacrifices have induced Us to grant for
this one year as much rain as ye desire'. They all returned home rejoicing.
In the autumn they worked vigorously on their farms, and after having prepared
the ground and sown the seed they prayed for rain. When they considered that
sufficient had fallen they again had recourse to prayer, and the rain ceased.
In this way an ideal crop of corn was produced and all the inhabitants of
that country made merry over it.
This year more crop was grown than ever before. After the crops were gathered
in however, all those who ate the corn died and many were the victims. In
perplexity they again sought the God bowing low before the temple, crying:
'Why hast Thou shown such wrath to us, after having shown so great a mercy?'
The God replied: 'It was not Our wrath, but your folly for interfering with
Our work. We sometimes send a drought, and at other times a flood, so that
a portion of your crops may be destroyed. But We have Our reasons for so doing,
for in this way all that is poisonous and undesirable in them is also destroyed,
leaving only what is beneficial for the preservation of your life'.
The villagers prostrated themselves in humble prayer, saying: 'We shall never
again try to control the affairs of the universe. Thou art the Creator, and
Thou art the Controller. We are Thine innocent children, and Thou alone knowest
what is best for us'. The Creator knows how to control His world, what to
bring forth, and what to destroy.
There are two aspects of individual harmony: the harmony between body and
soul, and the harmony between individuals.
The soul rejoices in the comforts experienced by the external self, yet man
becomes so engrossed in them that the soul's true comfort is neglected. This
keeps man dissatisfied through all the momentary comforts he may enjoy, but
not understanding this he attributes the cause of his dissatisfaction to some
unsatisfied desire in his life. The outlet of all earthly passions gives a
momentary satisfaction, yet creates a tendency for more. In this struggle
the satisfaction of the soul is overlooked by man who is constantly busied
in the pursuit of his earthly enjoyment and comfort, depriving the soul of
its true bliss. The true delight of the soul lies in love, harmony and beauty,
the outcome of which is wisdom, calm and peace; the more constant they are
the greater is the satisfaction of the soul.
If man in his daily life would examine every action which has reflected a
disagreeable picture of himself upon his soul and caused darkness and dissatisfaction,
and if on the other hand he would consciously watch each thought, word or
deed which had produced an inward love, harmony and beauty, and each feeling
which had brought him wisdom, calm and peace, then the way of harmony between
soul and body would be easily understood, and both aspects of life would be
satisfied, the inner as well as the outer. The soul's satisfaction is much
more important than that of the body for it is more lasting. In this way the
thought, speech and action can be adjusted, so that harmony may be established
first in the self by the attunement of body and soul.
The next aspect of individual harmony is practiced in one's contact with
another. Every being has an individual ego produced from his own illusion.
This limits his view which is led in the direction of his own interest; and
he judges of good and bad, high or low, right or wrong in relation to himself
and others through his limited view, which is generally partial and imaginary
rather than true. This darkness is caused by the overshadowing of the soul
by the external self. Thus a person becomes blind to his own infirmities as
well as to the merits of another: the right action of another becomes wrong
in his eyes and the fault of the self seems right. This is the case with mankind
in general, until the veil of darkness is lifted from his eyes.
The nafs, the ego of an individual, causes all disharmony with the self as
well as with others, thus showing its unruliness in all aspects of life. The
lion, the sovereign among all animals, most powerful and majestic, is always
unwelcome to the inhabitants of the forest, and he is even unfriendly to his
own kind. Two lions will never greet one another in a friendly way, for their
nafs is so strong. Although the lion is the ruler of all other animals, he
is a slave to his own passions which make his life restless. The nafs of herbivorous
animals such as sheep and goats is subdued; for this reason they are harmless
to one another, and are even harmonious enough to live in herds. The harmony
and sympathy existing among them makes them mutually partake of their joys
and sorrows, but they easily fall a victim to the wild animals of the forest.
The masters of the past, like Moses and Muhammed, have always loved to tend
their flocks in the jungles, and Jesus Christ spoke of himself as the Good
Shepherd, while St. John the Baptist spoke of the Lamb of God, harmless and
innocent, ready for sacrifice.
The nafs of the bird is still milder; therefore upon one tree many and various
kinds can live as one family, singing the praise of God in unison, and flying
about in flocks of thousands. Among birds are to be found those who recognize
their mate and who live together harmoniously, building the nest for their
young, each in turn sitting on the eggs and bearing their part in the upbringing
of their little ones. Many times they mourn and lament over the death of their
The nafs of the insects is still less; they walk over each other without
doing any harm, and live together in millions as one family without distinction
of friend or foe. This proves how the power of nafs grows at each step in
nature's evolution, and culminates in man, creating disharmony all through
his life unless it is subdued, producing thereby a calm and peace within the
self, and a sense of harmony with others.
Every human being has an attribute peculiar to his nafs. One is tiger-like,
another resembles a dog, while a third may be like a cat, and a fourth like
a fox. In this way man shows in his speech, thoughts and feelings the beasts
and birds, and the condition of his nafs is akin to their nature; at times
his very appearance resembles them. Therefore his tendency to harmony depends
upon the evolution of his nafs. As man begins to see clearly through human
life, the world begins to appear as a forest to him, filled with wild animals,
fighting, killing and preying upon one another.
There are four different classes of men who harmonize with each other in
accordance with their different states of evolution: angelic, human, animal
The angelic seeks for heaven, and the human being struggles along in the
world. The man with animal propensities revels in his earthly pleasures, while
the devilish man is engaged in creating mischief, thereby making a hell for
himself and for others. Man after his human evolution becomes angelic, and
through his development in animality arrives at the stage of devil.
In music the law of harmony is that the nearest note does not make a consonant
interval. This explains the prohibition of marriage between dose relatives
because of the nearness in merit and blood. As a rule harmony lies in contrast.
Men fight with men and women quarrel with women, but the male and the female
are as a rule harmonious with each other and a complete oneness makes a perfect
In every being the five elements are constantly working, and in every individual
one especially predominates. The wise have therefore distinguished five different
natures in man according to the element predominant in him. Sometimes two
elements or even more predominate in a human being in a greater or lesser
The harmony of life can be learned in the same way as the harmony of music.
The ear should be trained to distinguish both tone and word, the meaning concealed
within, and to know from the verbal meaning and the tone of the voice whether
it is a true word or a false note; to distinguish between sarcasm and sincerity,
between words spoken in jest, and those spoken in earnest; to understand the
difference between true admiration and flattery; to distinguish modesty from
humility, a smile from a sneer, and arrogance from pride, either directly
or indirectly expressed. By so doing the ear becomes gradually trained in
the same way as in music, and a person knows exactly whether his own tone
and word, as well as those of another, are false or true.
Man should learn in what tone to express a certain thought or feeling as
in voice cultivation. There are times when he should speak loudly, and there
are times when a soft tone of voice is needed; for every word a certain note,
and for every speech a certain pitch is necessary. At the same time there
should be a proper use of a natural sharp or flat note, as well as a consideration
There are nine different aspects of feeling, each of which has a certain
mode of expression:
- mirth: in a lively tone
- grief: in a pathetic tone
- fear: in a broken voice mercy - in a tender voice
- wonder: in an exclamatory tone
- courage: in an emphatic tone
- frivolity: in a light tone
- attachment: in a deep tone
- indifference: in the voice of silence.
An untrained person confuses these. He whispers the words which should be
known, and speaks out loudly those which should be hidden. A certain subject
must be spoken in a high pitch, while another requires a lower pitch. One
should consider the place, the space, the number of persons present, the kind
of people and their evolution, and speak in accordance with the understanding
of others, as it is said: 'Speak to people in their own language'. With a
child one must have childish talk, with the young only suitable words should
be spoken, with the old one should speak in accordance with their understanding.
In the same way there should be a graduated expression of our thought, so
that everybody may not be driven with the same whip. It is consideration for
others which distinguishes man from the animals.
It must be understood that rhythm is the balance of speech and action. One
must speak at the right time, otherwise silence is better than speech: a word
of sympathy with the grief of another, and a smile at least when another laughs.
One should watch the opportunity for moving a subject in society, and never
abruptly change the subject of conversation, but skilfully blend two subjects
with a harmonious link. Also one should wait patiently while another speaks,
and keep a rein on one's speech when the thought rushes out uncontrollably,
in order to keep it in rhythm and under control during its outlet. One should
emphasize the important words with a consideration of strong and weak accent.
It is necessary to choose the right words and mode of expression, to regulate
the speed and to know how to keep the rhythm. Some people begin to speak slowly
and gradually increase the speed to such an extent that they are unable to
speak coherently. The above named rules apply to all actions in life.
The Sufi, like a student of music, trains both his voice and ear in the harmony
of life. The training of the voice consists in being conscientious about each
word spoken, about its tone, rhythm, meaning and the appropriateness for the
occasion. For instance the words of consolation should be spoken in a slow
rhythm, with a soft voice and sympathetic tone. When speaking words of command
a lively rhythm is necessary, and a powerful distinct voice.
The Sufi avoids all unrhythmic actions; he keeps the rhythm of his speech
under the control of patience, not speaking a word before the right time,
not giving an answer until the question is finished. He considers a contradictory
word a discord unless spoken in a debate, and even at such times he tries
to resolve it into a consonant chord. A contradictory tendency in man finally
develops into a passion, until he contradicts even his own idea if it be propounded
In order to keep harmony the Sufi even modulates his speech from one key
to another; in other words, he falls in with another person's idea by looking
at the subject from the speaker's point of view instead of his own. He makes
a base for every conversation with an appropriate introduction, thus preparing
the ears of the listener for a perfect response. He watches his every moment
and expression, as well as those of others, trying to form a consonant chord
of harmony between himself and another.
The attainment of harmony in life takes a longer time to acquire and a more
careful study than does the training of the ear and the cultivation of the
voice, although it is acquired in the same manner as the knowledge of music.
To the ear of the Sufi every word spoken is like a note which is true when
harmonious and false when inharmonious. He makes the scale of his speech either
major, minor or chromatic as occasion demands, and his words - either sharp,
flat or natural - are in accord with the law of harmony. For instance, the
straight, polite and tactful manner of speech is like his major, minor or
chromatic scale, representing dominance, respect and equality. Similarly he
takes arbitrary or contrary motions to suit the time and situation by following
step by step, by agreeing and differing, and even by opposing, and yet keeping
up the law of harmony in conversation. Take any two persons as two notes;
the harmony existing between them forms intervals either consonant or dissonant,
perfect or imperfect, major or minor, diminished or augmented, as the two
persons may be.
The interval of class, creed, caste, race, nation or religion, as well as
the interval of age or state of evolution, or of varied and opposite interests
shows the law here distinctly. A wise man would be more likely to be in harmony
with his foolish servant than with a semi-wise man who considers himself infallible.
Again it is equally possible that a wise man be far from happy in the society
of the foolish, and vice versa. The proud man will always quarrel with the
proud while he will support the humble. It is also possible for the proud
to agree on a common question of pride, such as pride of race or birth.
Sometimes the interval between the disconnected notes is filled by a middle
note forming a consonant chord. For instance the discord between husband and
wife may be removed by the link of a child, or the discord between brothers
and sisters may be taken away by the intervention of the mother or father.
In this way, however inharmonious two persons may be, the forming of a consonant
chord by an intervening link creates harmony. A foolish person is an unpliable
note whereas an intelligent person is pliable. The former sticks to his ideas,
likes, dislikes and convictions, whether right or wrong, while the latter
makes them sharp or flat by raising or lowering the tone and pitch, harmonizing
with the other as the occasion demands. The key-note is always in harmony
with each note, for it has all notes of the scale within it. In the same way
the Sufi harmonizes with everybody, whether good or bad, wise or foolish,
by becoming like the key-note.
All races, nations, classes and people are like a strain of music based upon
one chord, when the key-note, the common interest, holds so many personalities
in a single bond of harmony. By a study of life the Sufi learns and practices
the nature of its harmony. He establishes harmony with the self, with others,
with the universe and with the infinite. He identifies himself with another,
he sees himself, so to speak, in every other being. He cares for neither blame
nor praise, considering both as coming from himself. If a person were to drop
a heavy weight, and in so doing hurt his own foot, he would not blame his
hand for having dropped it, realizing himself in both the hand and the foot.
In like manner the Sufi is tolerant when harmed by another, thinking that
the harm has come from himself alone. He uses counterpoint by blending the
undesirable talk of the friend and making it into a fugue.
He overlooks the fault of others, considering that they know no better. He
hides the faults of others, and suppresses any facts that would cause disharmony.
His constant fight is with the naf, the root of disharmony and the only enemy
of man. By crushing this enemy man gains mastery over himself; this wins for
him mastery over the whole universe, because the wall standing between the
self and the Almighty has been broken down.
Gentleness, mildness, respect, humility, modesty, self denial, conscientiousness,
tolerance and forgiveness are considered by the Sufi as the attributes which
produce harmony within one's own soul as well as within that of another. Arrogance,
wrath, vice, attachment, greed and jealousy are the six principal sources
of disharmony. Nafs, the only creator of disharmony, becomes more powerful
the more it is gratified, the more it is pleased. For the time being it shows
its satisfaction at having gratified its demands, but soon after it demands
still more until life becomes a burden. The wise detect this enemy as the
instigator of all mischief, but everybody else blames another for his misfortunes